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Scientific Publications

Ever since Dian Fossey published her first scientific paper in the late 1960s, the Fossey Fund’s Karisoke Research Center in Rwanda has been the premiere scientific institution for gorilla behavior and conservation research. Hundreds of publications have come out of Karisoke Research Center, and many more continue to be published every year. This information leads to a general scientific understanding of gorillas and their ecosystem as well.

Here are some of the publications based on research done at Karisoke Research Center over the years:

1960s and 1970s

Fossey, D. (1968). “J’observe les gorilles sur le chaine des Birunga.” Bulletin Agricole Du Rwanda (Ministère de l’Agriculture de l’Elevage et des Forêts, Kigali, Rwanda)(3): 163-164

Campbell, R. I. M. (1970). “Mountain gorillas in Rwanda.” Oryx 10: 256-257

Caro, T. M. (1976). “Observations of the ranging behavior and daily activity of lone silverback mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei).” Animal Behaviour 24: 889-897.

Elliott, R. C. (1976). “Observations on a Small Group of Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei).” Folia Primatologica 25: 12-24.

Fossey, D. (1970). “Making Friends with Mountain Gorillas.” National Geographic Magazine 137(1): 48-67.

Fossey, D. (1970). “Mes amis les gorilles.” Bulletin Agricole Du Rwanda (Ministere de l’Agriculture de l’Elevage et des Forets, Kigali, Rwanda)(4): 162-165.

Fossey, D. (1971). “More Years With Mountain Gorillas.” National Geographic Magazine 140(4): 574-585

Fossey, D. (1972). Living With Mountain Gorillas. The Marvels of Animal Behavior. T. B. Allen and S. L. Fishbein. Washington D.C., National Geographic Society: 208-229

Fossey, D. (1972). “Vocalizations of the Mountain Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei).” Animal Behaviour 20: 36-53.

Fossey, D. (1974). “Observations on the Home Range of One Group of Mountain Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei).” Animal Behaviour 22: 568-581.

Fossey, D. (1976). “Transcript of the Great Apes.” L.S.B. Leakey Foundation News (now Anthroquest) 6: 4-5.

Fossey, D. (1976). The Behaviour of the Mountain Gorilla, University of Cambridge, England.

Fossey, D. (1976). “Mountain Gorilla Research, 1967-1968.” National Geographic Society Research Report, 1968 Projects: 131-140.

Fossey, D. and A. H. Harcourt (1977). Feeding Ecology of Free-Ranging Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei). Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behaviour in Lemurs, Monkeys, And Apes. T. H. Clutton-Brock. London, Academic Press: 415-447.

Fossey, D. (1978). “Mountain Gorilla Research, 1969-1970.” National Geographic Society Research Report, 1969 Projects: 173-186.

Fossey, D., Harcourt, A.H. and Stewart, K.J. (1978). “The Death of Digit.” Wildlife (now BBC Wildlife) 20: 202-203.

Fossey, D. and A. H. Harcourt (1978). “His Name Was Digit.” Special Report, International Primate Protection League: 1-7.

Fossey, D. and A. H. Harcourt (1978). “The Life and Death of a Gentle Gorilla.” Africana Newsletter (Council for the Development of Economic and Social Research in Africa (CODESRIA)), Dakar, Senegal 6(9): 10-13.

Fossey, D. (1979). Development of the mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei): the first thirty-six months. The Great Apes. D. A. Hamburg and E. R. McCown. Menlo Park, Benjamin-Cummings: 139-184.

Fossey, D. (1979). Development of the mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei): the first thirty-six months. The Great Apes. D. A. Hamburg and E. R. McCown. Menlo Park, Benjamin-Cummings: 139-184.

Goodall, A. G. (1971). Preliminary report on the behavior and ecology of the mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei ) in the Mount Visoke Study Area, Virunga Volcanoes, University of Liverpool, Zoology Dept.  UK.

Goodall, A. G. (1973). A Bizarre Expedition for contact with mountain gorilla. Africana Newsletter, (CODESRIA), Dakar Senegal. 5: 33.

Goodall, A. G. (1974). Studies on the ecology of the mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei) in the Mount Kahuzi-Biega region (Zaire) and comparisons with the mountain gorillas of the Virunga Volcanoes, University of Liverpool, UK.

Goodall, A. G. and C. P. Groves (1977). The Conservation of Eastern Gorillas. Primate Conservation. P. Rainier de Monaco and G. H. Bourne. NY,NY, Academic Press: 599-637.

Goodall, A. G. (1979). The Wandering Gorillas. London, England, Collins Publishing Co.

Groom, A. F. G. (1973). “Squeezing out the Mountain Gorillas.” Oryx 12: 207-215.

Groves, C. P. and N. K. Humphrey (1973). “Asymmetry in Gorilla Skulls: Evidence of Lateralized Brain Function?” Nature 244(5410): 53-54.

Harcourt, A. H. and A. F. G. Groom (1972). “Gorilla census.” Oryx 11: 355-363.

Harcourt, A. H., D. Fossey, et al. (1976). “Male emigration and female transfer in wild mountain gorilla.” Nature 263: 226-227.

Harcourt, A. H., K. J. Stewart, et al. (1976). “Male Emigrations and Female Transfer in Wild Mountain Gorillas.” Nature 263: 226-227.

Harcourt, A. H. (1977). Social Relationships of Wild Mountain Gorillas, University of Cambridge, England.

Harcourt, A. H. (1977). “Virunga gorillas, the case against translocations.” Oryx 13: 469-472.

Harcourt, A. H. and K. J. Stewart (1977). Apes, Sex and Societies. New Scientist. 76: 160-162.

Harcourt, A. H. (1978). “Strategies of emigration and transfer by primates, with particular reference to gorillas.” Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie 48(4): 401-420.

Harcourt, A. H. (1978). “Activity periods and patterns of social interaction: a neglected problem.” Behaviour 66: 121-135.

Harcourt, A. H. and K. J. Stewart (1978). Social relations and group structure of wild mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei). Comparative ecology and behavior of primates. Crook and Michael. London, Academic Press: 507-581.

Harcourt, A. H. and K. J. Stewart (1978). “Copraphagy by wild mountain gorillas.” East African Wildlife Journal (now African Journal of Ecology) 16: 223-225.

Harcourt, A. H. a. K. J. S. (1978). Sexual behavior of wild mountain gorillas. Recent Advances in Primatology. D. J. C. a. J. Herbert. London, Academic Press. 1: 611-612.

Harcourt, A. H. (1979). “Social Relationships Among Adult Female Mountain Gorillas.” Animal Behaviour 27(1): 251-264.

Harcourt, A. H. (1979). “Social Relationships Between Adult Male and Female Mountain Gorillas in the Wild.” Animal Behaviour 27(2): 325-342.

Harcourt, A. H. (1979). “Contrasts Between Male Relationships in Wild Gorilla Groups.” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 5: 39-49.

Harcourt, A. H. (1979). The social relations and group structure of wild mountain gorillas. Perspective on Human Evolution, Vol. 5: The Great Apes. D. A. Hamburg and E. R. McCowan. Redwood City, California, Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co.: 187-192.

Harcourt, A. H. and K. Curry-Lindahl (1979). “Conservation of the mountain gorilla and its habitat in Rwanda.” Environmental Conservation 6: 143-147.

Romero-Herrera, A. E., H. Lehmann, et al. (1975). “The myoglobin of primates VII. Gorilla gorilla beringei (eastern highland gorilla).” Biochemica Et Biophysica Acta (International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics) 393: 383-388.

Stewart, K. J. (1977). “The birth of a wild mountain gorilla.” Primates 18: 965-976.

Weber, A. W. (1979). “Conservation of the Virunga gorilla.” Wildlife News (African Wildlife Foundation) 14(2): 7-9.

Weber, A. W. (1979). “Gorilla problems in Rwanda.” Swara (East African Wildlife Society) 2(4): 29-32.


Aveling, C. and A. H. Harcourt (1984). “A census of the Virunga gorillas.” Oryx 23(4): 64-70. 

Dondeyne, S. (1989). Les sols et la vegetation du Volcan Bisoke (Rwanda). Katholieke Univ. Leuven, Fac. van de Landoerwentenschappen.,  

Fossey, D. (1980). “Mountain Gorilla Research, 1971-1972.” National Geographic Society Research Report, 1971 Projects: 237-255.  

Fossey, D. (1981). The Imperiled Mountain Gorilla: A Grim Struggle for Survival. National Geographic Magazine. 159: 500-523.  

Fossey, D. (1982). “Reproduction among free-living gorillas.” American Journal of Primatology(supplement 1): 97-104.  

Fossey, D. (1983). “Mountain Gorilla Research, 1974.” National Geographic Society Research Report, 1974 Projects 14: 243-258.  

Fossey, D. (1983). Gorillas in the Mist. Boston, Houghton Mifflin.

Fossey, D. (1984). “Mountain Gorilla Research, 1977-1979.” National Geographic Society Research Report, 1976 Projects: 363-412.  

Fossey, D. (1984). Infanticide in mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) with comparative notes on chimpanzees. Infanticide: Comparative and evolutionary perspectives. G. Hausfater and S. B. Hrdy. New York, Aldine: 217-235.

Harcourt, A. H. and K. Curry-Lindahl (1980). “The mountain gorilla project, progress report 3.” Oryx 15: 324-325.  

Harcourt, A. H., D. Fossey, et al. (1980). “Reproduction in wild gorillas and some comparisons with chimpanzees.” Journal of Reproduction and Fertility S28: 59-70.

Harcourt, A. and K. Stewart (1981). “Gorilla male relationships: can differences during immaturity lead to contrasting reproductive tactics in adulthood?” Animal Behaviour 29: 206-210.

Harcourt, A. H. (1981). Intermale competition and the reproductive behavior of the great apes. Reproductive Biology of the Great Apes. C. E. Graham. New York, Academic Press: 301-318.

Harcourt, A. H. and D. Fossey (1981). “The Virunga gorillas: Decline of an island population.” African Journal of Ecology 19: 83-97.  

Harcourt, A. H., D. Fossey, et al. (1981). “Demography of Gorilla gorilla.” Journal of Zoology 195: 215-233. 

Harcourt, A. H., P. H. Harvey, et al. (1981). “Testis weight, body weight and breeding system in primates.” Nature 293: 55-57.  

Harcourt, A. H. and K. J. Stewart (1981). “Gorilla Male Relationships: Can Differences During Immaturity Lead to Contrasting Reproductive Tactics in Adulthood?” Animal Behaviour 29: 206-210.

Harcourt, A. H., K. J. Stewart, et al. (1981). Gorilla Reproduction in the Wild. Reproductive Biology of the Great Apes. C. E. Graham. New York, Academic Press: 265-279.

Harcourt, A. H., J. Kineman, et al. (1983). “Conservation and the Virunga gorilla population.” African Journal of Ecology 21(2): 139-142.,  

Harcourt, A. H. and K. J. Stewart (1983). Interactions, relationships and social structure: the great apes. Primate Social Relationships. R. A. Hinde. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications: 307-314.

Harcourt, A. H., et al. (1984). Gorillas. The Encyclopedia of Mammals. D.

MacDonald. London, George Allen and Unwin: 432-439.  

Harcourt, A. H. and S. A. Harcourt (1984). “Insectivory by gorillas.” Folia Primatologica 43(4): 229-233.  

Harcourt, A. H. and K. J. Stewart (1984). “Gorillas’ time feeding: aspects of methodology, body size, competition and diet.” African Journal of Ecology 22: 207-215.

Harcourt, A. H. a. K. J. S. (1984). Apes, sex and societies. The Understanding of Animals. G. Ferry. Oxford, Blackwell and New Scientist: 109-117.,  

Harcourt, A. H. (1986). Gorilla conservation: anatomy of a campaign. Primates: The Road to Self-Sustaining Populations. K. Benirschke. New York, Springer-Verlag: 31-46.

Harcourt, A. H. and K. J. Stewart (1986). High dominance rank in primate groups requires help from others. The Individual and Society. L. Passera and J. P. Lachaud. Toulouse, France, Universite Paul Sabatier: 93-100.

Harcourt, A. H., K. J. Stewart, et al. (1986). Vocalizations and social relationships in wild gorillas: a preliminary analysis. Current Perspectives in Primate Social Dynamics. D. M. Taub and F. A. King. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company: 346-353.

Harcourt, A. H. (1987). “Behaviour of wild gorillas and their management in captivity.” International Zoo Yearbook 26: 248-255.  

Harcourt, A. H. and K. J. Stewart (1987). Gorillas: Variation in female relationships. Primate Societies. D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, B. B. Smutts, T. T. Struhsaker and R. W. Wrangham. Chicago, University of Chicago Press: 155-164.

Harcourt, A. H. and K. J. Stewart (1987). “The influence of help in contests on dominance rank in primates: hints from gorillas.” Animal Behaviour 35: 182-190.

Harcourt, A. H. and K. J. Stewart (1989). “Functions of alliance in contests within wild gorilla groups.” Behaviour 109(3-4): 176-190.  

Harcourt, A. H. and K. J. Stewart (1989). “Environment, competition and reproductive performance in female primates.” Trends in Ecology and Evolution 4: 101-105.

Harcourt, A. H. and K. J. Stewart (1989). Social influences on competitive ability: alliances and their consequences. Comparative Socioecology of Mammals and Humans. V. Standen and R. Foley. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications: 223-242.

Jost, C. (1987). Constraintes d’Amenagement en region volcanique tropicale (La chaine centrale des Birunga au Rwanda). University L. Pasteur, Strasbourg et Univ. Nat. du Rwanda.

Nadler, R. D. (1986). “Sex-Related Behavior of Immature Wild Mountain Gorillas.” Developmental Psychobiology 19(2): 125-137.  

Nadler, R. D. (1989). “Sexual initiation in wild mountain gorillas.” International Journal of Primatology 10(2): 81-92.  

Sicotte, P. (1989). “Female migration and differential social development in infant mountain gorillas.” Anthroquest 40: 3-4.  

Stewart, K. J. (1981). The social development of wild mountain gorillas. Cambridge, University of Cambridge, U.K.  

Stewart, K. J. (1984). “Parturation in wild gorillas: behaviour oof mother, neonates, and others.” Folia Primatologica 42: 62-69.  

Stewart, K. J. and A. H. Harcourt (1987). Gorillas: Variations in female relationships. Primate Societies. B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham and T. Struhsaker. Chicago, University of Chicago Press: 155-164.

Stewart, K. J. (1988). “Suckling and lactational anestrous in wild gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei).” Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 83: 627-634.

Stewart, K. J., A. H. Harcourt, et al. (1988). Determinants of fertility in wild gorillas and other primates. Natural Human Fertility: Social and Biological Determinants. P.

Diggory, J. Potts and S. Teper. London, Macmillan Press: 22-38.

Vedder, A. L. (1984). “Movement patterns of free-ranging mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) and their relation to food availability.” American Journal of Primatology 7: 73-88.

Vedder, A. L. (1984). “Movement Patterns of a Group of Free-ranging Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) and Their Relation to Food Availability.” American Journal of Primatology 7: 73-88.

Waterman, P., G. Choo, et al. (1983). “Digestibility, digestion-inhibitors and nutrients of herbaceous foliage and green stems from an African montane flora and comparison with other tropical flora.” Oecologia 60(2): 244-249.

Watts, D. P. (1983). Foraging strategy and socioecology of mountain gorillas (Pan gorilla beringei), University of Chicago.

Watts, D. P. (1984). “Composition and variability of mountain gorilla diets in the Central Virungas.” American Journal of Primatology 7(4): 323-356.

Watts, D. P. (1985). “Relations between group size and composition and feeding competition in mountain gorilla groups.” Animal Behaviour 33: 72-85.

Watts, D. P. (1985). “Observations on the ontogeny of feeding behaviour in mountain gorillas.” Animal Behaviour 33: 72-85

Watts, D. P. (1987). “Effects of mountain gorilla foraging activities on the

productivity of their food plant species.” African Journal of Ecology 25(3): 155-163.

Watts, D. P. (1988). “Environmental influences on mountain gorilla time budgets.” American Journal of Primatology 15: 195-211.  

Watts, D. P. and J. Hess (1988). “Twin birth in wild mountain gorillas.” Oryx 22(1): 5-6.

Watts, D. P. (1989). “Infanticide in Mountain Gorillas: New Cases and a Reconsideration of the Evidence.” Ethology 81: 1-18. 

Watts, D. P. (1989). “Ant Eating Behavior of Mountain Gorillas.” Primates 30(1): 121-125.

Weber, A. W. (1981). Conservation of the Virunga gorillas: a socio-economic perspective on habitat and wildlife preservation in Rwanda, University of Wisconsin, Madison.

Weber, A. W. and A. Vedder (1983). “Population dynamics of the Virunga gorillas: 1959-1978.” Biological Conservation 26(4): 341-366.

Weber, A. W. (1987). Socioecologic factors in the conservation of Afromontane forest reserves. Primate Conservation in the Tropical Rain Forests. C. W. Marsh and R. A. Mittermeier. New York, Alan R. Liss: 205-229.

Yamagiwa, J. (1986). “Activity Rhythm and the Ranging of a Solitary Male Mountain Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei).” Primates 27(3): 273-282.  

Yamagiwa, J. (1987). Male life history and the social structure of wild mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). Evolution and Coadaptation in Biotic Communities. S. Kawano, J. H. Connell and T. Hidaka. Tokyo, University of Tokyo Press: 31-51.

Yamagiwa, J. (1987). “Intra and inter group interactions of an all-male group of Virunga mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei).” Primates 28(1): 1-30.


Byrne, R. W. and J. M. Byrne (1990). “Intelligence and expertise in gorilla development.” National Geographic Research Report.  

Byrne, R. W. and J. M. Byrne (1991). “Hand preferences in the skilled gathering tasks of mountain gorillas, (Gorilla gorilla beringei).” Cortex 27(4): 521-546.,  

Czekala, N., V.A. Lance and M. Sutherland-Smith (1994). “Diurnal Urinary Corticoid Excretion in the Human and Gorilla.” American Journal of Primatology 34: 29-34.

Fletcher, A. W. (1994). The social development of immature mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei), University of Bristol,  

Gerald, C. N. (1995). Demography of the Virunga mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei), Princeton University. 

Harcourt, A. H. (1992). Coalitions and alliances: are primates more complex than non-primates. Coalitions and Allinaces in Humans and Other Primates. A. H. H. a. F. B. M. d. Waal. Oxford, Oxford University Press: 445-472.

Harcourt, A. H. and K. J. Stewart (1992). “Endangered Species.” Nature 354: 10.

Harcourt, A. H. and K. J. Stewart (1992). “How monkeys see the world? Why monkeys?” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15: 160-161. 

Harcourt, A. H. and F. B. M. d. Waal (1992). Cooperation in conflict: from ants to arthropods. A. H. Harcourt and F. B. M. d. Waal: 492-510.  

Harcourt, A. H., K. J. Stewart, et al. (1993). “Functions of wild gorilla ‘close’ calls. Repertoire, context and interspecific comparison.” Behaviour 124(1-2): 89-122.

Harcourt, A. H. and K. J. Stewart (1994). “Gorillas’ vocalizations during rest periods: signals of impending departure?” Behaviour 130(1-2): 29-40. 

Harcourt, A. H. (1995). “Population viability estimates, theory and practice for a wild gorilla population.” Conservation Biology 9(1): 134-142.

Mahaney, W. C., D.P. Watts and R.G.V. Hancock (1990). “Geophagic behaviour by mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) in the Virunga mountains, Rwanda.” Primates 31(1): 113-120.

McNeilage, A. J. (1995). Mountain gorillas in the Virunga Volcanoes: Ecology and carrying capacity. Zoology. Bristol, University of Bristol, U.K.  

Plumptre, A. J. (1991). Plant-Herbivore Dynamics in the Birungas., University of Bristol, Department of Zoology. 

Plumptre, A. J. (1993). “The effects of trampling damage by herbivores on the vegetation of the Parc National Des Volcans, Rwanda.” African Journal of Ecology 32: 115-129.

Plumptre, A. J. (1996). “Modelling the impact of large herbivores on the food supply of mountain gorillas and implications for management.” Biological Conservation 75: 147-155.

Robbins, M. M., C. T. Snowdon, et al. (1993). “Paternity discrimination in multimale mountain gorilla groups.” Zoo & Wildlife Reproduction, University of Wisconsin, Madison:

Robbins, M. 1992. The effects of the war on the Virunga mountain gorilla population. Gorilla Gazette. 6(1): 1-2.

Robbins, M. M. (1995). “A demographic analysis of male life history and social structure of mountain gorillas.” Behaviour 132(1-2): 21-47. 

Robbins, M. M. (1996). “Male-male interactions in Heterosexual and All-male Wild Mountain Gorilla Groups.” Ethology 102: 942-965.  

Robbins, M.M. 1996. Male-male interactions in heterosexual and all-male wild mountain gorilla groups. Ethology. 102(11): 942-965.  

Robbins, M. M. (1999). “Male mating patterns in wild multimale mountain gorilla groups.” Animal Behaviour 57(5): 1013-1020.  

Robbins, M.M. 1999. Male mating patterns in wild multimale mountain gorilla groups. Animal Behaviour. 57(5): 1013-1020.  

Seyfarth, R. M., D. L. Cheney, et al. (1994). “The acoustic features of gorilla double grunts and their relation to behavior.” American Journal of Primatology 33(1): 31-50.

Sicotte, P. (1993). “Inter-group encounters and female transfer in mountain gorillas: influence of group composition on male behavior.” American Journal of Primatology 30(1): 21-36.

Sicotte, P. (1994). “Effect of Male Competition on Male-Female Relationships in Bi-male Groups of Mountain Gorillas.” Ethology 97(47-64).  

Sicotte, P. (1995). “Interpositions in Conflicts Between Males in Bimale Groups of Mountain Gorillas.” International Journal of Primatology 65: 14-24.  

Steklis, H.D. 1994. The fate of the mountain gorilla in war-torn Rwanda: Current research efforts at the Karisoke Research Center. American Journal of Primatology. 33(3): 241.

Steklis, H.D. 1994. Karisoke and the mountain gorilla amidst turmoil in Rwanda. Laboratory Primate Newsletter. 33(3): 2. 

Steklis, H.D., Gerald-Steklis, N., Madry, S. 1996. The mountain gorilla: conserving an endangered primate in conditions of extreme political instability. Primate Conservation. 17: 145-151.

Steklis, H.D., and Steklis, N.G. 1997. Status and prospects of the Virunga mountain gorilla. Gorilla Gazette. 11(1): 21. 

Watts, D. P. (1990). “Mountain Gorilla Life Histories, Reproductive Competition, and Sociosexual Behavior and Some Implications for Captive Husbandry.” Zoo Biology 9: 185-200.

Watts, D. P. (1990). “Ecology of gorillas and its relation to female transfer in mountain gorillas.” International Journal of Primatology 11: 21-45.  

Watts, D. P. (1991). “Strategies of Habitat Use by Mountain Gorillas.” International Journal of Primatology 56: 1-16.  

Watts, D. P. (1991). “Mountain Gorilla Reproduction and Sexual Behavior.” American Journal of Primatology 24: 211-225.  

Watts, D. P. (1991). “Harassment of immigrant female mountain gorillas by resident females.” Ethology 89(2): 135-153.  

Watts, D. P. (1992). “Social Relationships of Immigrant and Resident Female Mountain Gorillas. I. Male-Female Relationships.” American Journal of Primatology 28: 159-181.

Watts, D. P. and A. E. Pusey (1993). Behavior of Juvenile and Adolescent Great Apes. Juvenile Primates. M. E. Pereira and L. A. Fairbanks. Chicago, University of Chicago Press: 148-171.

Watts, D. P. (1994). “Social Relationships of Immigrant and Resident Female Mountain Gorillas, II. Relatedness, Residence, and Relationships Between Females.” American Journal of Primatology 32: 13-30.

Watts, D. P. (1994). “Agonistic relationships between female mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei).” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 34: 347-358.,  

Watts, D. P. (1994). “The influence of male mating tactics on habitat use in mountain gorillas.” Primates 35(1): 35-47.  

Watts, D. P. (1995). “Post-conflict Social Events in Wild Mountain Gorillas (Mammalia, Hominoidea). I. Social Interactions between Opponents.” Ethology 100: 139-157.

Watts, D. P. (1996). Comparative socio-ecology of gorillas. Great Ape Societies. W. C. McGrew, L. F. Marchant and T. Nishida. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: 16-28.

Watts, D.P. 1997. Agonistic interventions in wild mountain gorilla groups. Behaviour. 134(1-2): 23-57.  

Yamagiwa, J. (1992). “Functional analysis of social staring behavior in all-male groups of mountain gorillas.” Primates 33(4): 523-544.


Galbany, J., Abavandimwe, A., Vakiener, M., Eckardt, W., Mudakikwa, T., Ndgaijimana, F., Stoinski, T.S., McFarlin, S. (accepted).  Body growth and life history in wild mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) from Volcanoes National park, Rwanda.

Grueter, C. Robbins, R., Abavandimwe, D., Vecellio, V., Ndagijimana, D., Ortmann, S., Stoinski, T.S., Robbins, M.M. (accepted).  Quadratic relationship between group size and the foraging efficiency of the Virunga mountain gorillas. Scientific Reports.

Mirville, M., Muyco, S., Vecellio, V., Ndagijimana, F., Stoinski, T., Grueter, C. (accepted). Low familiarity and similar ‘group strength’ between opponents increases the intensity of intergroup interactions in mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology.

Ito, A. Eckardt, W. Stoinski, T.S., Gillespie, T. Tokiwa, T. (in review). Three new Troglodeytella and a new Gorilloflasca ciliates (Entodiniomorphida) from mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Rwanda.

Porter, A., Eckardt, W., Vecellio, V., Guschanski, K., Niehoff, T., Ngobobo, U., Nishuli, R., Stoinski, T., Caillaud, D. (in review). Behavioral response to conspecific death and corpses in adult eastern gorillas (Gorilla beringei).

Wright, E., Galbany, J., McFarlin, S., Ndayishimiye, E., Stoinski, T., Robbins, M.M. (in review). Male body size, dominance rank and strategic use of aggression in a group-living mammal.

Eckardt, E., Ryu, Stoinski, T., Santymire, R., Williams-Newkirk, Hensley, Abavandimwe, D., Mucyo, S., Gonzalez-Astudillo, Gillespie, T. (in review). The effects of human presence and other stressors on the prevalence of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Entamoeba species in wild mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Rwanda.

Eckardt, T., Stoinski, T., Rosenbaum, S., Santymire, R. (in review). Social and ecological factors negatively affect the stress physiology of Virunga mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei)

Rosenbaum, S., Eckardt, W., Stoinski, T., Kuzawa, Ch., Santymire, R. (in review). Validation of an androgen enzyme immunoassay as a measure of fecal testosterone and 5-dihydrotestosterone metabolites in wild male mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei)

van der Hoek, Y., Emmanuel, F., Eckardt, W., Kwizera, I., Derhé, M., Caillaud, D., Stoinski, T., Tuyisingize, D. (in review) Recent decline in vegetative regeneration of bamboo (Yushania alpina), a key food plant for primates in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. Scientific Reports.  

van der Hoek, Y., Tuyisingize, D., Eckardt, W., Garriga, N., Derhé, M. (in review) Spatial variation in anuran richness, diversity, and abundance across montane wetland habitat in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. Ecology and Evolution.

Kayitete, L., van der Hoek, Y., Nyirambangutse, B., Derhé. M. (in review).  Observations on regeneration of the keystone plant species Hagenia abyssinica in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. African Journal of Ecology.

Galbany, J., Muhire, T., Vecellio, V., Mudakikwa, A., Nyiramana, A., Cranfield, M.R, Stoinski, T.S., & McFarlin, S.C. (in review). Incisor wear and age determination in mountain gorillas from Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda.  American Journal of Physical Anthropology.

Rosenbaum, S., Vigalant, L., Kuzawa, C., Stoinski, T.S. (2018).  Caring for infants associated with male reproductive success in mountain gorillas. Scientific Reports.

Mirville, M.O., Ridley, A., Muyco, S., Vecellio, V., Ndagijimana, F., Stoinski, T.S., Grueter, C. (2018). Factors influencing individual participation during intergroup interactions in mountain gorillas, Animal Behaviour (2018). DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.08.003

Bass, P. van der Valk, T., Vigilant, L., Ngobobo, U., Binyinyi, E., Nishuli, R., Caillaud, D., Gushanski, K. (2018).  Population level assessment of genetic diversity and habitat fragmentation in critically endangered Grauer’s gorillas.  American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 165, 656-575.

Ito, A., Eckardt, W., Stoinski, T.S., Gillespie, T.R., & Tokiwa, T. (2017). Gorilloflasca Africana n.g., n.sp., (Entodiniomorphida) from wild habituated Virunga mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Rwanda. European Journal of Protistology, 60, 68-75.

Campos, F.A., Morris, W.F., Alberts, S.C., Altmann, J., Brockman, D.K., Cords, M., Pusey, A., Stoinski, T.S., Strier, K.B., & Fedigan, L.M. (2017). Does climate variability influence the demography of wild primates? Evidence from long-term life-history data in seven species. Global Change Biology, 23 (11), 4907-4921.

Kralick, A., Burgess, M.L., Glowacka, H., Arbenz-Smith, K., McGrath, K.J., Ruff, C.B., Chan, K.C., Cranfield, M.R., Stoinski, T.S., Bromage, T.G., Mudakikwa, A., & McFarlin, S.C. (2017). A radiographic study of permanent molar development in wild Virunga mountain gorillas of known chronological age from Rwanda. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 163 (1), 129-147.

Galbany, J., Abavandimwe, D., Vakiener, M., Eckardt, W., Mudakikwa, A., Ndagijimana, F., Stoinski, T.S., & McFarlin, S.C. (2017). Body growth and life history in wild mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) from Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 163 (3), 570-590.

Glowacka, H., McFarlin, S.C., Vogel, E.R., Stoinski, T.S., Tuyisingize, D., Mudakikwa A., & Schwartz, G.T.  (2017). Toughness of the Virunga mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) diet across an altitudinal gradient. American Journal of Primatology, 79 (8), e22661.

Colchero, F., Rau, R., Jones, O.R., Barthold, J.A., Conde, D.A., Lenart, A., Nemeth, L., Scheuerlein, A., Schoeley, J., Torres, C., Zarulli, V., Altmann, J., Brockman, D.K., Bronikowski, A.M., Fedigan, L.M., Pusey, A.E., Stoinski, T.S., Strier, K.B., Baudisch, A., Alberts, S.C., & Vaupel, J.W. (2016). The emergence of longevous populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113 (48), e7681-e7690.  Winner of the Cozarrelli Prize.

Rosenbaum, S., Vecellio, V., & Stoinski, T.S. (2016). Observations of severe and lethal coalitionary attacks in wild mountain gorillas. Scientific Reports, 6, 37018.

Madinda, N.F., Ehlers, B., Wertheim, J.O., Akoua-Koffi, C., Bergl, R.A., Boesch, C., Akonkwa, D.B.M., Eckardt, W., Fruth, B., Gillespie, T.R., Gray, M., Hohmann, G., Karhemere, S., Kujirakwinja, D., Langergraber, K., Muyembe, J., Nishuli, R., Pauly, M., Petrzelkova, K.J., Robbins, M.M., Todd, A., Schubert, G., Stoinski, T.S., Wittig, R.M., Zuberbühler, K., Peeters, M., Leendertz, F.H., & Calvignac-Spencer, S. (2016). Assessing host-virus codivergence for close relatives of Merkel cell polyomavirus infecting African great apes. Journal of Virology, 90 (19), 8531-8541.

Robbins, M.M., Ando, C., Fawcett, K.A., Grueter, C.C., Hedwig, D., Iwata, Y., Lodwick, J.L., Masi, S., Salmi, R., Stoinski, T.S., Todd, A., Vecellio, V., & Yamagiwa, J. (2016). Behavioral variation in gorillas: evidence of potential cultural traits. PLoS ONE, 11 (9), e0160483.

Grueter, C.C., Robbins, M.M., Abavandimwe, D., Ortmann, S., Mudakikwa, A., Ndagijimana, F., Vecellio, V., & Stoinski, T.S. (2016). Elevated activity in adult mountain gorillas is related to consumption of bamboo shoots. Journal of Mammology, 97 (6), 1663-1670

Bronikowski, A.M., Cords, M., Alberts, S.C., Altmann, J., Brockman, D.K., Fedigan, L.M., Pusey, A.E., Stoinski, T.S., Strier, K.B., & Morris, W. (2016). Female and male life tables for seven wild primate species. Scientific Data, 3, 160006.

Glowacka, H., McFarlin, S.C., Catlett, K.K., Mudakikwa, A., Bromage, T.G., Cranfield, M.R., Stoinski, T.S., & Schwartz, G.T. (2016). Age-related changes in molar topography and shearing crest length in a wild population of mountain gorillas from Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 160 (1), 3-15.

Rosenbaum, S., Hirwa, J.P., Silk, J.B., Vigilant, L., & Stoinski T.S. (2016). Infant mortality risk and paternity certainty are associated with postnatal maternal behavior toward adult male mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). PLoS ONE, 11(2), e0147441.

Rosenbaum, S., Maldonado-Chaparro, A.A., & Stoinski, T.S. (2016). Group structure predicts variation in proximity relationships between male-female and male-infant pairs of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). Primates, 57 (1), 17-28.

Eckardt, W., Stoinski, T.S., Rosenbaum, S., Umuhoza, M.R., & Santymire, R. (2016). Validating faecal glucocorticoid metabolite analysis in the Virunga mountain gorilla using a natural biological stressor. Conservation Physiology, 4 (1), cow029.

Ito, A., Eckardt, W., Stoinski, T.S., Gillespie, T.R., & Tokiwa, T. (2016). Prototapirella ciliates from wild habituated Virunga mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Rwanda with the descriptions of two new species. European Journal of Protistology, 5447-58.

Galbany, J., Stoinski, T.S., Abavandimwe, D., Breuer, T., Rutkowski, W., Batista, N.V., Ndagijimana, F. & McFarlin, S.C. (2016). Validation of two independent photogrammetric techniques for determining body measurements of gorillas. American Journal of Primatology, 78 (4), 418-431.

Galbany, J., Imanizabayo, O., Romero, A., Vecellio, V., Glowacka, H., Cranfield, M.R., Bromage, T.G., Mudakikwa, A., Stoinski, T.S. & McFarlin, S.C. (2016). Tooth wear and feeding ecology in mountain gorillas from Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 159 (3), 457-465.

Grueter, C. & Stoinski, T.S. (2016). Homosexual behavior in female mountain gorillas: reflection of dominance, affiliation, reconciliation or arousal? PLoS ONE, 11(5), e0154185.

Rosenbaum, S., Hirwa, J.P., Silk, J.B., & Stoinski T.S. (2016). Relationships between adult male and maturing mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) persist across developmental stages and social upheaval. Ethology,122 (2), 134-150.

Glowacka H., McFarlin S.C., Catlett K.K., Mudakikwa A., Bromage T.G., Cranfield M.R., Stoinski T.S., Schwartz G.T.  (2016). Age-related changes in molar topography and shearing crest length in a wild population of mountain gorillas from Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda.   American Journal of Physical Anthropology 160:3-15.

Habumuremyi, S., Robbins, M.M., Stephens, C., Fawcett, K.A., & Deschner, T. (2016).  Endocrine assessment of cyclic activity in female mountain gorillas.  Physiology and Behavior, 151, pp. 185-195.

Eckardt, W., Fawcett, K. & Fletcher, A (2016). Weaned age variation in the Virunga mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei):  Influential factors
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 70, 493-507.

Galbany J, Stoinski TS, Abavandimwe D, Breuer T, Rutkowski W, Batista NV, Ndagijimana F & McFarlin SC (2016). Validation of two independent photogrammetric techniques for determining body measurements of gorillas. American Journal of Primatology. DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22511.

Grueter, C., Robbins, A., Abavandimwe, D., Vecellio, V., Ndagijimana, F., Ortmann, S., Stoinski, T.S., & Robbins, M.M.. (2015). Causes, mechanisms, and consequences of content competition among female mountain gorillas in Rwanda.  Behavioral Ecology, doi:10.1093/beheco/arv.212.

Rosenbaum S, Hirwa JP, Silk JB, Vigilant L, & Stoinski T.S. (2015). Male rank, not paternity, predicts male-infant relationships in mountain gorillas.  Animal Behaviour, 104, 13-24

Eckardt, W., Steklis, D., Steklis, N., Fletcher, A., Stoinski, T.S. & Weiss, A. (2015). Personality structure of wild Virunga mountain gorillas.  Journal of Comparative Psychology, 129, 26-41.   

Vigilant, L., Roy, J., Bradley, B., Stoneking, C.J., Robbins, M.M., & Stoinski, T.S. (2015). Reproductive competition and inbreeding avoidance in a primate with habitual female dispersal.  Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 69, 1163-1172.

Wright, E., Grueter, C.C., Seiler, N., Abavandimwe, D., Stoinski, T.S., Ortman, S., Robbins, M.M.. (2015). Energetic responses to variation in food availability in the two mountain gorilla populations (Gorilla beringei beringei).  American Journal of Physical Anthropology, DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.22808.

Barks, S.K., Calhoun, M.E., Hopkins, W.D., Cranfield, M.R., Mudakikwa, A., Stoinski, T.S., Patterson, F.G., Erwin, J.M., Hecht, E.E., Hof, P., & Sherwood, C.C. (2015).  Brain organization of gorillas reflects species differences in ecology.  American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 156, 252-262.

Roy, J., Gray, M., Stoinski, T.S., Robbins, M.M., Vigilant. L. (2014).  Fine scale genetic analysis suggests further dispersal in male than female mountain gorillas. BMC Ecology 2014, 14:21. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6785/14/21

Callaid, D., Ndagijimana, F., Giarusso, T., Vecellio, V. & Stoinski, T.S. (2104).  Mountain gorilla ranging patterns: Influence of group size and group dynamics.  American Journal of Primatology, DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22265

Grueter, C.C., Deschner, T., Behringer, V., Fawcett, K., Robbins, M.M., (2014). Correlates of energy balance in wild female mountain gorillas: application of a c-peptide based biomarker. Hormones and Behavior.

Habumuremyi, S., Robbins, M.M., Fawcett, K.A., & Deschner, T. (2014).  Monitoring ovarian cycle activity via progestagens in urine and feces of female mountain gorillas: A comparison of EIA and LC-MS measurements.  American Journal of Primatology, 76, 180-191.

Alberts, S.C. Atlmann, J., Brockman, D.K., Cords, M., Fedigan, L.M., Pusey, A.E., Stoinski, T.S., Morris, B.F., Strier, K.B., and Bronikowski, A.M.. (2013).  Reproductive cessation patterns in primates reveal that humans are distinct. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Grueter, C.C., Robbins, M.M., Fawcett, K.A., Ndagijimana, F., Stoinski, T. (2013). Anecdotal evidence of tool use in mountain gorillas.  Behavioral Processes.

Stoinski, T.S., Perdue, B., Breuer, T. & Hoff, M. (2013). Variability in the developmental life history of the Genus GorillaAmerican Journal of Physical Anthropology.

Rushmore, J. L., Caillaud, D., Richard, J., Stumpf, R. M., Meyers, L. A., & Altizer, S. (2013). Network-based vaccination improves prospects for disease control in wild chimpanzee. Journal of Animal Ecology, DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12088

Gray, M., Roy, J., Vigilant, L., Fawcett, K., Basabose, A., Cranfield, M., Uwingeli, P., Mburanumwe, I., Kagoda, E., Robbins, M.M. (2012). Genetic census reveals increased but uneven growth of a critically endangered mountain gorilla population. Biological Conservation, 158: 230-238.

Grueter, C.C., Ndamiyabo, F., Plumptre, A.J., Abavandimwe, D., Mundry, R., Fawcett, K.A., & Robbins, M.M. (2012).  Long term temporal and spatial dynamics of food availability for mountain gorillas in Volcanos National Park. American Journal of Primatology. DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22102.

McFarlin, S., Barks, S.K., Tocheri, MW., Massey, J.S., Eriksen, A.B., Fawcett, K.A., Hof, P.R., Bromage, T.G., Mudakiwkwa, A., Cranfield, M.R., Stoinski, T.S., Sherwood, C.C. (2012). Early brain growth cessation in wild Virunga mountain morillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). American Journal of Primatology. DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22100

Langergraber, K.E. Prüfer, K., Rowney, C., Boesch, C.,  Crockford, C. Fawcett, K., Inoue, E., Inoue-Muruyama, M., Mitani, J.C., Muller, M.N., Robbins, M.M., Schubert, G., Stoinski, T., Viola, B., Watts, D., Wittig, R.M., Wrangham, R.W., Zuberbühler, K., Pääbo, S., & Vigilant, L. (2012).  Generation times in wild chimpanzees and gorillas suggest earlier divergence times in great ape and human evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, September 25, 2012, vol. 109 no. 39, p.  15716-15721.

Bronikowski, A.M., Atlmann, J., Brockman, D.K., Cords, M., Fedigan, L.M., Pusey, A.E., Stoinski, T.S., Morris, B.F., Strier, K.B., and Alberts, S.C. (2011).  Aging in the natural world: Comparative data reveal similar mortality patterns across primates. Science, 331, (1325) DOI: 10.1126/science.1201571.

Fawcett, K., G. Bush, A. Seimon, G. Picton Phillips, D. Tuyisingize, and P. Uwingeli. (2011). Long term changes in the Virunga Volcanoes. In The Ecological Impact of Long-Term Changes in Africa’s Rift Valley. Ed. A.J. Plumptre. Nova Science Publishers, UK.

Karama J. (2011). Developing an in situ conservation education program in Rwanda. A case study of the Dian Fossey Fund’s primary school program around Volcanoes National Park. Journal of the International Zoo Educators Association 47: 46-51.

Morris, B.F., Atlmann, J., Brockman, D.K., Cords, M., Fedigan, L.M., Pusey, A.E., Stoinski, T.S., Bronikowski, A.M., Alberts, S.C., Strier, K.B. (2011). Long-term fitness in wild primate populations: impacts of variation, covariation, and serial correlation in vital rates. American Naturalist, 177, E14-E28.

Robbins, A. M., Stoinski, T. S., Fawcett, K. A. & Robbins, M. M. (2011). Lifetime reproductive success of female mountain gorillas.  American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 146: 582-593.

Robbins, M.M., Gray, M., Fawcett, K.A., Nutter, F., Uwingeli, P., Mburanumwe, I., Kagoad, E., Basabose, A., Stoinski, T.S., Cranfield, M.R., Byamukama, J., Spelman, L.H., Robbins, A.M. (2011). Extreme conservation leads to the recovery of the mountain gorilla. PLoS ONE 6(6): e19788. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019788.

Gray, M., Mc Neilage, A., Fawcett, K., Robbins, M., Ssebides, B., Mbula, D., Uwingeli, P. (2010).  Censusing the mountain gorilla in the Virunga Volcanoes: complete sweep method versus monitoring. African Journal of Ecology, 48: 588-599.

Nahayo A., Bigendako M. J., Fawcett, K., Gu Y. (2010) Ethnobotanic study around Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. New York Science Journal 3(5): 37-49.

Rosenbaum, S., Silk, J. & Stoinski, T.S. (2010). Male-immature relationships in multi-male groups of mountain gorillas. American Journal of Primatology, 71, 1-10.

Strier, K.B., Atlmann, J., Brockman, D., Bronikowski, A., Cords, M., Fedigan, L., Lapp, H., Liu, X., Morris, W., Pusey, A., Stoinski, T.S., Alberts, S. (2010).  The primate life history database: A unique shared ecological data resources.  Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 1, 199-211.

Robbins, A.M., Stoinski, T. S., Fawcett, K. A. & Robbins, M. M. (2009). Socioecological influences on the dispersal of female mountain gorillas: evidence for a second folivore paradox.  Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 63: 477-489.

Robbins A.M., Stoinski T.S.Fawcett K.A, Robbins M.M. (2009). Leave or conceive: Natal dispersal and philopatry in female mountain gorillas of the Virunga volcano region. Animal Behaviour, 77, 831-838.

Robbins, A. M., Stoinski, T. S.Fawcett, K. A. & Robbins, M. M. (2009). Does dispersal cause reproductive delays in female mountain gorillas. Behaviour, 146, 525-549.

Stoinski, T.S., Rosenbaum, S., Ngaboyamahina, T., Vecellio, V., Ndagijimana, F., Fawcett, K. (2009).  Patterns of male reproductive behavior in multi-male, multi-female groups of mountain gorillas: examining theories of reproductive skew.  Behaviour, 146, 1193-1215.

Stoinski, T.S., Rosenbaum, S., Vecellio, V., Ngaboyamahina, T., Ndagijimana, F., Fawcett, K. (2009). Proximate factors influencing dispersal decisions in male mountain gorillas. Animal Behaviour, 77, 1155-1164.

Fischer, E., Killmann, D. & Nsanzurwimo, A. (2008). Polystachya pamelae, eine neue Art aus den Virunga Vulkanen, Ruanda – Polystachya pamelae, a new species from the Virunga Volcanoes, Rwanda. Die Orchidee 59 (1): 52-57.

Tuyisingize, D., Fawcett, K., & Twinomugisha, D. (2008). Golden Monkey Cercopithecus mitis kandti In Rowe N. and Myers M. (eds). All The World’s Primates. Pogonias Press.

Williamson, E.A. & Fawcett, K.A. (2008).  Long-term conservation of the Virunga mountain gorillas. In R. Wrangham & E. Ross (eds). Science and conservation in African Forests: the benefits of long-term research.  New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 213-229.

Luksenberg, B. & Nsanzurwimo, A. (2007). Quatre nouvelles espèces référenciées pour le Rwanda, découvertes du Parc national des Volcans : Epipogium roseum (D. Don) Lindley [Orchidaceae], Catha edulis Forsskål [Celastraceae], Dumosia villosa DC. [Fabaceae], Satyrium sceptrum Schlechter [Orchidaceae]. Taxonomania21, 12-20.

Mehlman, P. (2007). Current status of wild gorilla populations and strategies for their conservation.  In T.S. Stoinski, H.D. Steklis & P.T. Mehlman (eds). Conservation in the 21st Century: Gorillas as a Case Study.  New York: Springer, pp. 3-56.

Robbins, A., Robbins, M. Fawcett, K. (2007). Maternal investment of the Virunga mountain gorillas. Ethology, 113: 235-245.

Robbins, M., Robbins, A., Steklis, N & Steklis, D. (2007). Sociological influences on the reproductive success of female mountain gorillas. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 61, 919-939.

Steklis, H.D., Madry, S., Steklis, NG., Faust, N. & Kayijamahe, E. (2007). An integrated geomatics research program for mountain gorilla behavior and conservation.  In T.S. Stoinski, H.D. Steklis & P.T. Mehlman (eds). Conservation in the 21st Century: Gorillas as a Case Study.  New York: Springer, pp. 228-252.

Steklis, N. & Steklis, D. (2007). The value of long-term research: The mountain gorillas as a case study. In T.S. Stoinski, H.D. Steklis & P.T. Mehlman (eds). Conservation in the 21st Century: Gorillas as a Case Study.  New York: Springer, pp. 136-159.

Stoinski, T.S., Steklis, H.D., & Mehlman, P., eds. (2007). Conservation in the 21st Century: Gorillas as a Case Study.  Springer.  362 pages.

Stoinski, T.S., Lukas, K.E., & Hutchins, M. (2007). Zoos and conservation: Moving beyond a piecemeal approach. In Stoinski et al. (eds.). Conservation in the 21st Century: Gorillas as a Case Study. Springer.

Robbins, A, Robbins, M., Steklis, N & Steklis, D. (2006). Age-related patterns of reproductive success among female mountain gorillas.  American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 131: 511-521.

Bradley, B.B., Robbins, M.M., Williamson, E.A., Steklis, H.D., Steklis, N.G., Eckhardt, N., Boesch, C., & Vigilant, L. (2005). Mountain gorilla tug-of-war: Silverbacks have limited control over reproduction in multimale groups. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102, 9418-9423.

Lilly, A.A. Human social issues, disease, and sympatric apes in the Central African Republic.  (2005). In JD Paterson & J Wallis (eds). Commensalism and conflict: The human-primate interface. American Society of Primatologists. Norman, Oklahoma. Pp. 60-75.

Robbins, M., Robbins, A., Steklis, N. & Steklis, D. (2005). Long-term dominance relationships in female mountain gorillas: strength, stability and determinants of rank. Behaviour: 142: 779-809.

Sherwood, C., Cranfield, M., Mehlman, P., Lilly, A., Garbe, J., Whittier, C., Nutter, F., Rein, T., Brunner, H., Holloway, R., Tang, C., Naidich, T., Delman, B., Steklis, H., Erwin, J., Hof, P. (2004). Brain structure variation in great apes, with attention to the mountain gorilla. American Journal of Primatology, 63: 149-164.

Warren, Y. & Williamson, EA. (2004). Transport of dead infant mountain gorillas by mothers and unrelated females.  Zoo Biology, 23: 375-378.

Kalpers, J., Williamson, E.A., Robbins, M.M., McNeilage, A., Nzamurambaho, A., Lola, N., Mugiri, G. (2003).  Gorillas in the crossfire: population dynamics of the Virunga mountain gorillas over the past three decades.  Oryx, 37: 326-337. 

Lilly, A.A., Mehlman, P.T., Doran, D. (2002). Intestinal parasites in gorillas, chimpanzees and humans at Monkida Research site, Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic. International Journal of Primatology, 23, 555-573.

Steklis, D. & Steklis, N. (2001). Status of the Virunga mountain gorilla population.  In M.M Robbins, P. Sicotte, & K.J. Stewart (eds).  Mountain gorillas: Three decades of Research at Karisoke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 391-412.

Warren, Y. & Williamson, E.A. (2001). Carriage of infants by a silverback mountain gorilla. Folia Primatologica, 245-247.

Williamson, E.A. & Gerald-Steklis, N. (2001). Composition of Gorilla gorilla beringei groups monitored by Karisoke Research Center, 2001.  African Primates, 5: 48-51.