Dian Fossey, Gorilla Conservation Pioneer
Dian Fossey’s passion for the endangered mountain gorillas led her to pioneer what she called “active conservation.” When Dian Fossey set up her research center in Volcanoes National Park, the park guards were underpaid and lacked the training and equipment needed for their dangerous job. The trade in “bushmeat,” live infant gorillas and souvenirs such as ashtrays made from severed gorilla hands flourished in nearby towns. In addition, people in villages surrounding the park would illegally enter the forest to graze cattle or set traps for game that could also harm gorillas. As Fossey conducted her observations of the gorillas, she became increasingly aware that these animals were in grave danger, and she feared that they would disappear by the end of the twentieth century.
Fossey began to destroy traps, confront poachers, and chase away cattle. She used her own funds to supply the park guards with boots, uniforms, food and additional salaries, and she even hired some of her own anti-poachers. She referred to her tactics as “active conservation.” She was convinced that without immediate and decisive action, long-term gorilla conservation goals would be useless, as there would eventually be nothing left to save.
Fossey’s war with poachers intensified following the tragic murder of her favorite gorilla, Digit, in 1977. After Digit died from multiple stab wounds while defending his family, who escaped safely, his attackers cut off his head and hands. Fossey’s methods soon became more unorthodox and controversial, as she attempted to frighten the poachers with masks and threats of violence.
Bringing gorilla conservation to the international public
After Digit’s death, Fossey also began a campaign to gain the public’s support for gorilla conservation, founding the Digit Fund for that purpose. She had already attracted attention to their cause through her articles in National Geographic. Following her own tragic murder in 1987, the Digit Fund was renamed the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International.
The success of Fossey's book Gorillas in the Mist also brought the plight of the mountain gorilla to the world’s attention. In 1988, a movie based on the book reached large audiences. Sigourney Weaver, who played Dian Fossey in the movie, became the honorary chair of the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International. With the success of both the book and the movie, more people now understand that gorillas are “gentle giants,” with much to teach us and the right to survive in their forest home.
Conservation at Karisoke™ today
The Karisoke™ Research Center continues to employ armed guards to this day to protect the gorillas. Karisoke’s guards find and remove some 1,000 snares each year and help bring poachers to justice. They also support the national park staff by conducting joint patrols throughout the gorillas’ habitat. You can help support their work by “adopting” a Karisoke anti-poaching patrol.
Karisoke has also established supportive relations with the communities surrounding the park. It operates many local health and education programs, such as treating intestinal parasites, providing clean water, rehabilitating health clinics, providing conservation education and supporting the Bisate School.
Gorilla conservation at Karisoke™ succeeds
The gorilla conservation work begun by Dian Fossey has exceeded her expectations. The latest census of mountain gorillas in the Virungas found that they increased from about 260 individuals in Fossey’s day to 480 by 2010, making mountain gorillas the only great ape population to have increased in number during recent decades.